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When streetcars are better than buses (and vice versa)

Streetcars and buses both operate on city streets, in similar ways. So why go to the trouble and expense of building streetcars? Because there are in fact inherent differences that make one or the other better, depending on circumstances.

DC Circulator and DC Streetcar, to scale. These are not the same thing.

First, what’s not an inherent difference: The running way. Both streetcars and buses can, should, and do operate in both dedicated lanes and in mixed traffic with cars. When and where they do so can make a huge difference to a line’s effectiveness, but that decision is not dependent on the vehicle. The point of this list is to compare the modes when all other things are equal.

Streetcar advantages:

  1. Streetcars have greater capacity than buses.
    Streetcars are bigger, longer, and can be combined into multi-car trains. They can carry many more passengers than any bus, even accordion buses. For corridors with ridership too high for buses to handle comfortably but not high enough to justify a subway, streetcars can be a good solution.

  2. Streetcars can be more affordable than buses over the long term.
    While it’s true that streetcars cost more to build up front, that cost can be offset by operational savings year-to year, if the line carries enough passengers. Streetcars’ higher capacity means if there are lots of riders on a route, you can move them with fewer vehicles. Fewer vehicles means more efficient use of fuel and fewer (unionized and pensioned) drivers to pay. Streetcar vehicles themselves are also sturdier than buses, and last decades longer. In the long term, streetcars can be more affordable on very high ridership routes.

  3. Streetcar tracks reassure riders they’re on the right route.
    In any big city, buses are confusing. There are so many crisscrossing routes that buses are intimidating and difficult to understand. For example, DC’S 16th Street has no fewer than 5 different routes, with two of them labelled identically as the S2 despite different destinations. New users are turned off because they don’t want to accidentally get on the wrong bus and end up far from their real destination. Since streetcars have to stay on their tracks, streetcars reassure riders their vehicle will go where they want it to go.

  4. Streetcars stand out.
    The fact that streetcars are expensive to build means cities can’t realistically put them on every route. The size of any streetcar system is therefore inherently limited to only the more important routes (though how a city defines “important” may vary). This provides a convenient proxy for people to know where the best transit routes are, since most people don’t memorize their entire region’s incomprehensible jumble of bus routes. Instead of that jumble, streetcars provide a simple system map that’s easy to memorize. Meanwhile, trains are also civic icons. Tourists visit them, photograph them, and send postcards featuring them, all of which enhances a city’s brand. It’s true that frequent route networks and unique branding can bring some of these same benefits to buses, but streetcars are more powerful and noticeable symbols.

  5. Streetcars are more comfortable to ride than buses.
    Any vehicle running on large tires over asphalt will sometimes be a bumpy ride, especially if the pavement is in less than perfect condition. Gliding along a rail is inherently smoother, making for a vastly more comfortable ride. This issue isn’t often discussed in newspaper articles, and rail opponents like to pretend it’s not a big deal, but it matters. And it’s not strictly a luxury issue, there’s a practical benefit: A smoother ride means passengers are more willing to stand, allowing for more open railcar interiors that maximize capacity.

  6. Streetcars are economic development magnets.
    The presence of rail transit nearby is one of the best incentives for economic development in the world. Metro stations radically remade large swaths of the DC area, and streetcars can do the same (have done the same, in places like Portland and Toronto). Developers rarely base decisions around bus lines, but routinely follow rail investments with real estate ones. In fact, the additional taxes generated by rail-oriented development is often used to repay the initial capital investment of rail lines.

  7. Streetcars are quieter and cleaner than buses.
    Because they run on electricity, streetcars are very quiet and emit no vehicle exhaust. While it’s true that electric trolleybuses exist, they are almost never used in the US because of BRT creep, and no new US city has introduced them in generations. This isn’t a truly inherent difference, and it may disappear as wireless electric buses proliferate. But for the time being it’s a legitimate difference.

  8. Streetcars are sometimes faster than buses.
    Most streetcars have at least 3 doors, and many models have 4 or more. That means passengers at stations can load and unload faster, meaning streetcars can spend more time actually moving, and less time dwelling at stations waiting for passengers. Thus, when streetcars are not held up by other traffic, they’re faster than buses.

  9. Streetcars attract more riders than buses.
    For all these reasons, people who would never consider riding a bus will ride a streetcar. Operational details trump all else, but when every other detail is equal, rail attracts more riders.

Of course, buses are useful tools too, and are the right choice in many (in fact most) situations. Buses must be a major part of every city’s transit network, including both local and rapid bus routes. But buses are demonstrably different than streetcars. They have different characteristics, accomplish different goals, and are more appropriate in different places.

Bus advantages:

  1. Buses are usually cheaper.
    Buses don’t require the huge initial construction cost of streetcars, and except on the highest-ridership routes buses are generally cheaper to operate. This fact alone means buses are the right choice for most routes.

  2. Buses can put more service in more places.
    Since buses are generally cheaper, a city can provide good transit service on several routes, going to several destinations, for the same cost as comparably-frequent service on one streetcar line. This is why every city in America uses buses instead of streetcars for most of its routes, and only introduces streetcars at special locations.

  3. Buses are more flexible.
    Streetcars must run on rails, which sets their routes in stone. That’s both a blessing a curse. While it means riders will always know where a route goes, it also means branching routes are impractical, which limits how broad an area transit can cover. Buses give transit operators the ability to send some buses that start off on the same route to different locations, such as how DC’s S2 and S4 Metrobuses split near Silver Spring .

  4. Buses can skip ahead.
    On any street with more than one traffic lane, buses can pull around obstacles and speed forward. Streetcars must wait for obstacles to clear, meaning buses in mixed traffic with cars are often faster than streetcars in similar mixed traffic. It also means express and limited-stop bus routes can operate on the same streets as routes that make all stops. Technically speaking this isn’t an inherent difference, since a streetcar line could be built with multiple parallel tracks and frequent crossovers, but practically speaking that never happens.

May 25th, 2010 | Permalink | {num}Comments
Tags: BRT, bus, featured post, streetcar, transportation

  • guest

    Worthy of a postcard:nnhttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3446/3364394635_1ef05835e7.jpg

    • nevilleross

      Big deal.

  • BeyondDC

    That’s the exception that proves the rule. The double decker Megabuses that run between DC and NY are not so iconic.

  • Jarrett Walker

    Thanks for bringing this up again. I did a detailed analysis of these and other “streetcars or better” arguments two years ago. If you really want to think about these issues, and understand what is at stake, see here: http://www.humantransit.org/2011/02/sorting-out-rail-bus-differences.html

    • Joy_F

      Yes, I read your article. You never addressed the quality of ride issue at all. It seemed to be a mystery to you why people would choose Streetcars over buses, and why ridership went up with them, though you admitted that they did. Quality of ride is a huge factor, and it is something that a bus, no matter how much money you pour into it, simply can’t deliver and will always be under utilized because of.

  • Eric

    So the bottom line is: streetcars privilege one neighborhood (generally an affluent one) and one set of developers at the expense of the rest of the city, which gets less funding. And nobody, even the rich neighborhood, has a quicker ride.nnDoesn’t sound like it’s worth it.

    • BeyondDC

      Any infrastructure project could be said to “privilege one neighborhood/developers at the expense of the rest.” Certainly that’s true of Metrorail. Was it a mistake to build Metro, since it benefits some more than others? And how about city schools? Nobody is getting a quicker ride because of them either, yet we inexplicably seem to still want them, almost as if other goals besides speed are sometimes important.

      • Eric

        Every neighborhood can reasonably be expected to have bus lines and parks. Streetcars will never be affordable outside a few neighborhoods per city. In recent experience, those are always predominantly white, gentrifying ones.

        • Joy_F

          In neighborhoods, as they change, yes a bus is more practical. A complete city would have some of both. A bus is much more practical for unfixed experimental routes as many neighborhood tend to be. Fr places that aren’t going anywhere, such as downtowns, streetcars are more practical and ultimately cheaper. nnIt never ceases to amaze me why these arguments are always so either/or. Must be an American thing.

        • Nathanael

          Every neighborhood with sufficient density can expect to get streetcars; for God’s sake look at the streetcar map DC used to have.

      • Eric

        You say “Streetcar routes are easier to understand” – That’s true, but nonly because there are so few of them. If streetcars served as many nneighborhoods as buses, the route network would be just as complicated.

        • Joy_F

          A streetcar system couldn’t do the same as a bus. It’s not meant to. The system is for permanent pieces of city, which is often a small portion. But putting a bus route on a permanent city location (downtowns) when streetcars would be more effective is silly. You don’t use a hammer on a screw because you like hammers better do you? Smart planning integrates the two.

        • Nathanael

          Even very complicated streetcar networks (Melbourne, Australia comes to mind) are easier to understand than bus networks.

          • Alan F. Cunningham

            That seems to be because Bus routing cannot resist little service detours to malls, subdivisions and campuses. Nice for people waiting at those places, hell for those trying to get somewhere, and hell for other stops on the route whop have to deal with longer headwaysnnSteel wheeled streetcars can’t even make turns without noise issues and maintenance woes.

  • Dave

    Streetcar advantages #3 and #4 don’t hold true as the streetcar network grows. For example, Amsterdam has lines crisscrossing everywhere, so you’re never quite sure which way your particular streetcar is going to go at major intersections. And they definitely don’t stand out since they must have hundreds plying their streets.

    • http://beyonddc.com BeyondDC

      Amsterdam is the extremely unusual case of a geographically tiny city that has just about as many tram lines as it has bus lines. And even then, the rail-only map is quite a bit easier to digest than all transit map. Anecdotally, when I was in Amsterdam in March, I memorized the tram routes in my neighborhood but not the bus lines. nnBut let’s take it to North America. The largest streetcar network in North America is Toronto. They have 11 lines stretching 50 miles. It’s vastly larger than DC’s network will be even after the entire system is built (assuming it ever is). Here’s Toronto’s streetcar map, and here’s its bus map. Even for what is by far the largest streetcar network on this continent, the streetcars are still much easier to understand than the bus system.nnnnSo I agree that it’s theoretically possible to build a streetcar system so expansive that what you describe is true. But in practice it either never happens or it’s such a rare exception to the rule that it doesn’t matter for practical purposes.



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